Throughout the whole life the female body experiences different processes. A girl reaching the age of 12 experiences the first menstruation, then pregnancy, birth, then she nurses her baby and, finally, when she mainly reaches the age of 47-55, she experiences menopause, or the termination of functioning of ovaries. The woman must know main signs of menopause to prepare properly for this difficult period of her life.
Age and First Symptoms
The age when the woman notices first symptoms of the upcoming menopause is not fixed. She can experience the first symptom of it – disruption of the menstrual circle – at the age of 30 as well as 50. The early or late onset of the menopausal period depends on certain factors. The whole process of the termination of the ovarian functioning can last even for 5 years, and after the end of the process the female reproductive function terminates.
Main stages of menopause:
• Perimenopause is the process lasting for several years, during which the progestin and estrogen production is reduces and the cycle failure occurs
• Menopause is the termination of maturing of ovum and the complete cessation of producing of female sex hormones
• Postmenopause is the final termination of functioning of ovaries
Reasons for Onset of Menopause
There are factors that directly or indirectly influence the time of the onset of menopause:
• The usage of oral contraceptives, stresses, excessive thinness, smoking, the excess weight and excessive consumption of alcohol are most common reasons for the early onset of menopause
• Genetics (a girl inherits an amount of follicles in ovaries and pituitary and hypothalamus functions from her mother)
• Chronic diseases and their exacerbation (endocrinal diseases, imbalance of hormones, the cardiac function and blood vessel function disturbance, oncology, experienced chemotherapy)
• The place of residence (the region): an active ultraviolet provokes the early menstruation but the late menopause
• Psychological factor: women suffering from frequent stresses, mental overstress and emotional instability experience the early menopause
The healthy lifestyle and sexual activity extends the period of the reproductive function of ovaries.
What Changes Does the Body Experience?
By the year of 35 there is a decline in an amount of egg cells in ovaries as well as in the production of estrogen. At the age of 45 the hormone level becomes critical, menstruations terminate, ovaries decrease in size, and that’s all means the biological old age.
In the menopausal period the female hormone system undergoes the following changes:
• During menopause there is a minimum of sex hormones in the body because of which the woman sometimes experiences menstruation. At the same time, a low amount of estrogen prevents ovum’s output.
• The progesterone index declines, which can cause cancerous tumors in inner reproductive organs and disturbed metabolism.
• The reduction in the level of sex hormones goes hand in hand with hot flashes, the increased blood pressure, ear noise, sweating of the face and the body, sickness and skin redness. Main signs of menopause are apparent as a result of the functional disturbance of pituitary and hypothalamus.
• The imbalance of pituitary hormones is often the reason for osteoporosis and nervous diseases including tearfulness and panic fear.
• The disruption of the thyroid functioning appears as the tremor of the hands, a rapid pulse, obesity and diabetes progression.
• With the disturbed functioning of adrenal glands the increased pressure, painful feelings in the heart and the excess growth of hair on the face and the body appear.
• Vessels become vulnerable; there is also a risk of atherosclerosis progression.
How Does Menopause Appear?
The common symptoms of menopause provoke the climacteric syndrome that is characterized by the following features:
• Hot flashes and depression are precursors of upcoming changes in the female body. How flashes often appear in stuffy rooms and because of high air temperature and high humidity. Women can become too sentimental and whiny, their mood can often change, sleep, memory and attention span get worse, anxiety and depression become apparent. These symptoms occur as a result of the hormonal level decrease.
• Variations of the estrogen level can provoke osteoporosis, a disease causing frequent broken bones.
• The increased cholesterol level and reduced liver function increases a risk of atherosclerosis progression, ischemia and heart stroke. Vascular plaques cause the increased blood pressure, reduce myocardial contractility and increase the clotting tendency.
• Loss of libido, vaginal dryness as a result of the decrease of the slime production and urinary incontinence appear. The inflammation of vagina and urine organs can occur.
• Skin becomes dry and has a tendency to acne and other dermatological diseases. The condition of hair and nails get worse and they become brittle and dingy.
Accompanying signs that can appear at the time of the onset of menopause:
• Tingling of the skin and feeling of numbness
• Frequent headaches and dizziness
• Periodical hyperactivity
• Reduction of the size of mammary glands and cystic changes in them
• Frequent urination but little urine excretion
• Pain and aches in the body
• Feeling of sand in the eyes
• Exacerbation of chronic diseases
• Decreased ability to do work, memory difficulties
• Increased risk of inflammation of veins, occlusion of pulmonary artery or its branches with clots
These symptoms disappear after the menopausal period and, of course, if the woman cares for her health. To understand the causes of the disturbance of the functioning of organs and systems of the organism it is necessary to consult the doctor and not to engage in self-treatment. If the woman does not follow the medical recommendations, serious diseases including those that can cause death can appear and progress.